The normal cell cycle is tightly regulated by various genes. A cell cycle is a method by which cells divide themselves and reproduce in an ordered manner. The cell cycle ensures that DNA copying is efficient, errors in DNA are repaired, and that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes. Checkpoints are also part of the cell cycle. They allow genes to detect a problem, and stop the cycle to fix it.
Human chromosomes consist of 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The cell membrane has a large surface area-to-volume ratio, which makes the transfer of DNA fast. The ratio of surface area to volume (SA/V) decreases as the cell gets larger. This results in problems for the cell, such as a low ability to move cytoplasmically. This is part of the cell’s cycle, which includes many cellular events such as growth and preparation for division.
A normal cell cycle is divided into two phases: interphase and mitosis. The S phase, which duplicates the contents of the cell and separates them into two genetically identical daughters cells, is the first part. The second phase, called the M phase, is less dramatic, lasting only a few hours in a mammalian cell. The M phase is when chromosomes move to the nucleus in the daughter cells.