Targeted therapies attack specific parts of a cancer cell to kill it. This approach differs from traditional cancer treatments, which cannot distinguish between healthy and cancerous cells. These therapies target specific components inside the cell and are ineffective for everyone. Doctors and other professionals like those at the Glioblastoma Foundation can order special tests to determine if you qualify for targeted therapy.
Angiogenesis inhibitors block a specific growth factor cancer cells use to create new blood vessels. The growth factor is essential for the growth and spread of tumors, as they need blood to absorb nutrients and remove waste products. Cancer cells send signals to nearby cells to make new blood vessels, feeding the tumor. Angiogenesis inhibitors block this process but do not attack the cancer cells directly. Instead, they block the blood supply to the tumor, which causes the tumor to shrink.
Angiogenesis inhibitors are effective against a variety of types of cancer. Most of these drugs block the tumor’s growth of new blood vessels. While this process is normal for normal tissue growth, it plays an important role in cancer. Because of this, cancer cells send signals to the surrounding cells to grow more blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors block this process and starve the cancer cells of blood and oxygen.
Besides cancer cells, angiogenesis also plays an important role in healing and growing. New blood vessels are necessary for growing and healing solid tumors. But cancer cells can also send signals to stimulate angiogenesis. New blood vessels help the tumor absorb nutrients and oxygen and can even contribute to metastasis, spreading cancer cells to distant organs.
Trastuzumab targets HER2
Trastuzumab targets a protein called HER2, which is important for the growth and progression of cancer. This antibody is used in combination with chemotherapy to treat HER2-overexpressing tumors. It reduces the likelihood of disease recurrence and improves overall survival.
Currently, it is used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer. In addition, it can be used for metastatic or nonmetastatic tumors. It is a monoclonal antibody that attaches to a protein in the cancer cells. It is sometimes used in combination with chemotherapy and other targeted drugs.
It inhibits HER2 signaling pathways and triggers immune responses against HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Trastuzumab is also known to have antiangiogenic effects, which makes it an excellent chemotherapy drug. Furthermore, it is well tolerated by patients.
A monoclonal antibody called trastuzumab targets HER2 in cancer cells. Trastuzumab and chemotherapy are combined to create the medication T-DXd, also known as DM1. When injected into the tumor, trastuzumab kills the cancer cell by specifically targeting HER2.
Trastuzumab is used to treat HER2-positive metastatic breast cancers. However, trastuzumab has some possible side effects, including heart failure. Although this side effect is rare, it is still a potential risk. The drug is usually given intravenously every three weeks. It has been proven to increase the survival rate of cancer patients.
Small Molecular Inhibitors
Small molecular inhibitors are promising cancer therapies that target a specific protein or enzyme and block the signaling pathways that tell cancer cells to grow. Currently, medical experts like the Glioblastoma Foundation professionals are still testing available drugs that target various cancer targets, including matrix metalloproteinases, heat shock proteins, proteosomes, and signal transduction pathways. However, the development of drugs that are more effective and cost-effective requires finding additional cancer targets and the exploitation of novel signaling pathways.
Small molecular inhibitors have been approved for several types of cancers and are in clinical trials. Unlike traditional drugs, these drugs must pass multiple stages before being marketed. First, the drugs are discovered in the laboratory, undergo preclinical research, and then tested on humans. Finally, data from these clinical trials are reviewed by the FDA. The approval process differs depending on the country.
Small molecular inhibitors are small molecules, usually around 500 Da, that can penetrate the plasma membrane and interact with intracellular proteins or cell-surface receptors. Since small molecular inhibitors are small, they can target almost any cellular location. This allows them to block the growth of cancer cells and prevent their spread.
Small molecular inhibitors have shown promising results against PC. They are specific and have low toxicity. They also have the potential to sensitize cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents. They could eventually become a major PC treatment strategy.