Four-wheel drive is standard on most trucks for a good reason. A truck is built to be practical and capable of doing any task. When you need power, control, and traction from your car, 4WD is the way to go. However, how does the four-wheel-drive system operate? Furthermore, what’s the difference between the three modes of four-wheel drive?
With that well said, this article is expertly crafted to help you differentiate between the 4WD high, low, and auto options. You will also know when to use and when not to use the 4WD alternatives for the best overall drive.
Let’s get started;
4WD vs. 2WD vs. AWD
When you walk into any automobile dealer lots, you can see the popularity of 4×4 vehicles, also known as All-Wheel Drive cars. The advancement is frequently available as a standard or optional feature in trucks, Sport Utility Vehicles, and crossovers. It’s sometimes included in sedans and compacts to enhance sportiness.
Now, let us compare Four-wheel-drive, two-wheel drive and all-wheel drive systems:
Understanding the 4WD setup is relatively easy. A 4-wheel drive vehicle has an extra rear axle. Therefore, that means that the engine’s power is distributed to both the front and back wheels.
As a result, the 4WD powertrain allows you to control both the front and back wheels with ease. For example, if the front wheels lose traction the back wheels maneuver to keep the vehicle on its lane.
In the previous century, not all vehicles were 100% 4WD enabled. Therefore, when you wanted to go off-road, maybe for some activity with your truck, you had to come to a complete stop, get out of the vehicle, grab the lever, and connect the back axle to activate the 4WD mode.
Fortunately, the SUVs came, and off-roading turned to be of pure enjoyment. People wanted to stay inside their vehicles. Therefore new technologies were designed to allow them to utilize the 4WD functions in a single button press.
2WD – Two-Wheel-Drive
A 2WD automobile transmits engine powertrain to two wheels to keep the vehicle moving. Two-wheel drive cars are often offered in one of two configurations as either front-wheel drive or rear-wheel drive.
As the name implies, front-wheel drive automobiles send power to the front wheels to improve traction and stability. The front-wheel drive system is primarily used in family sedans and is renowned for delivering exceptional fuel efficiency and handling slick surfaces.
When you’re driving a rear-wheel-drive automobile, you’ll notice that the power is sent to the back wheels to improve acceleration and produce a more athletic driving experience. Most sporty and luxurious automobiles come with rear-wheel drive as a default. The rear-wheel-drive system distributes weight evenly to improve handling and overall performance as you travel from one destination to another.
AWD – All-Wheel-Drive
AWD is designed to be used on the road. It is capable of sending all of the engine’s power across all four wheels at all times. AWD will keep your car moving ahead better than rear-wheel drive or front-wheel drive on snow-covered or rain-slicked roads.
The All-wheel-drive configuration aids in the transmission of engine power to the ground when the vehicle is on high performance or turning at high speed. All-wheel-drive systems shift torque on both the front and back tires as needed.
In addition, when necessary, it can transition to a two-wheel drive to save gasoline.
Because the all-wheel-drive is built to allow each tire to spin at its own pace, it is effective on pavements without causing damage.
For the ordinary driver who needs bad weather security, all-wheel drive is superior to four-wheel drive. As a result, most current SUVs and passenger cars are equipped with all-wheel drive. It’s even becoming more common in pickup trucks, which have traditionally been the realm of four-wheel drive.
Is 2WD better than 4WD?
Four-wheel and All-wheel drive systems perform better on wet roads. The powertrain, which transmits mechanical power, impacts the vehicle’s performance in the snow, unpaved roads, and rain.
According to Consumer Reports, electronic stability control is the current standard on passenger vehicles built after 2012. Electronic stability technology works in conjunction with traction control to increase the vehicle’s road-holding capabilities regardless of the vehicle’s powertrain.
Two-wheel drive systems are common on most passenger vehicles because the configuration has a good point for fuel efficiency. The two-drive vehicles have their engines supplying power to two wheels while letting the other two spin effortlessly.
In addition, two-wheel-drive cars are lighter and more fuel-efficient than four-wheel-drive vehicles since the vehicle’s engine doesn’t have to power the four wheels. When it comes to weight, the 2WD systems weigh less than 4WD configuration.
Is It Better To Have AWD Or 4WD?
The quick answer is that it is dependent on the situation. Drivers can choose the optimal system based on the vehicle’s principal use ranging from the weekend adventure to daily commuting.
Driving style and geographical location also determine whether you should go for AWD or 4WD. In most ordinary driving conditions like the winter weather, AWD and 4WD will give superior traction to two-wheel-drive cars.
Large vehicles and SUVs are ideal for towing and transporting huge loads, and 4WD is more common than AWD. That means 4WD is a good option for consumers who need to pull hefty goods. On the other hand, smaller crossovers like the Honda CR-V, Subaru Forester, or Toyota RAV4 aren’t often used for off-roading or heavy hauling, and they come standard with AWD.
In deep snow, mud, rugged or rocky terrain, as well as sharp inclines or drops, four-wheel-drive shines. 4WD systems are more durable than AWD systems and can withstand more abuse and power.
The driver may dial in the proper amount of power and torque delivery for optimal traction in every condition using low- and high-range settings. It’s also a good idea for drivers who live in rural areas or frequently go to distant areas to own a 4WD car.
Due to the added weight and mechanical resistance of the equipment required to turn all four wheels, vehicles equipped with AWD or 4WD typically have a lower fuel economy.
The drop in gas mileage may be minor in certain circumstances, but it can build up over time. Many 4WD-equipped vehicles are enormous trucks and SUVs, which already have poor fuel efficiency due to their weight and size.
Complicated drivetrains might likewise be more costly. AWD and 4WD are typically offered as options rather than standard equipment by most vehicle manufacturers. The update can increase the cost of a new vehicle by several thousand dollars in some circumstances. Audi, for example, produces numerous vehicles with basic all-wheel drive. Subaru has made a name for itself by specializing in all-wheel-drive cars and crossovers.
4WD High vs Low vs Auto: Comparison table
|4WD High||4WD Low||4WD Auto|
|Definition||4WD High is the setting for low-traction roads but reasonably high-speed environments.||4WD Low is only for slow off-roading or situations where torque multiplication would be really beneficial for example in deep sand.||4WD provides extra traction automatically to match with what the road conditions require.|
|When to use||When driving at normal speeds on wet or snowy roads so that when you’re stuck in sand or even snow, you can use the configuration to get out of the problem more quickly.||Low-range 4WD is ideal for crawling over boulders, fording creeks, pounding through thick sand, and climbing steep off-road terrain since it maximizes both power and traction.||4WD Auto is beneficial when there are varying areas of a generally smooth and dry surface, such as when a dry roadway has sections of snow or water, or when the paved path has gravel sections.|
|When not to use||● When driving at a speed less than 55 mph.||● At speeds of more than 40 MPH.
● When traveling through a smooth surface.
|● Don’t use it when not in need of a four-wheel drive system.|
4WD High vs Low vs Auto: Details comparison
According to Edmunds, most 4WD systems allow drivers to choose between 4WD high and 4WD low modes. The high range is the default option. Whether or not to utilize high or low range depends on the driving conditions.
High range 4WD is for higher speeds and less traction than 4WD low. On snowy, frozen dirt, slick, or paved roadways, Edmunds suggests utilizing a 4WD high range. On the other hand, 4WD low range is for off-roading conditions requiring substantial traction, such as deep sand. In addition, the maximum speed of 4×4 High and 4×4 Low is different.
4WD is ineffective without an Auto option. 4WD High is the setting for low-traction roads but reasonably high-speed environments, such as a dirt road or a snowy road.
4WD Low is only for slow off-roading or situations where torque multiplication would be beneficial, for example, in deep sand. Low range 4WD was formerly widespread, but it’s now reserved for pickup trucks and SUVs with serious off-road configurations.
In 4WD Auto, the transfer case activates the front wheels when the car detects that the rear wheels are losing traction. As a result, the 4WD will automatically provide extra traction to match what the road condition requires. The 4WD Auto is used for regular driving, but that reduces your fuel economy.
Auto 4WD is similar to all-wheel drive. It has a slippy clutch design to transfer cases that prevents it from binding on dry pavement. It’s designed for usage on varied terrain like partially snow-covered highways.
When to use 4WD
- When you need more hauling power at a slower speed
- Climbing steep gradients at slower speeds when greater power is required
- While descending a steep hill carrying large loads. Low gearing offers better braking assistance.
- Leave the car in 4WD Auto when driving on high-traction surfaces. As you alter your speed and prolong the following distance, this provides the best fuel economy.
- As the severity of the weather worsens, 4WD is the ideal option. 4WD Auto forces the driver to evaluate the road surface tractions before engaging the motions continually. Driving mode and speed need to change accordingly. When there is snow and ice during the winter, most truck owners can leave 4WD Auto on.
When not to use 4WD
According to Consumer Reports, using 4WD on smooth flat, and dry roads can damage your vehicle. According to Family Handyman, 4WD needs more fuel to propel the gears and the driveshaft. To save money on gas, turn it off when not in use. Don’t use the low range 4WD to get out of mud or snow.
4WD vehicles are meant for heavy-duty jobs like towing a boat trailer up a launch ramp. Therefore, the 4WD system isn’t supposed to be used all of the time. In addition, it’s only on certain road types, such as rugged terrain and off-roading, and treacherous weather like snow or mud, that the 4WD configurations are allowed.
Unlike the 4WD high, the low mode moves the wheels slowly but provides you greater torque on less forgiving terrain. 4WD Auto is beneficial on varying areas of a generally smooth and dry surface.